scopolia: koristi, nuspojave, interakcije i upozorenja

Belladonna, Belladonna Scopola, Escopolia, Glockenbilsenkraut, japanski Belladonna, ruski Krainer Tollkraut, Scopola, Scopolia Carniolica Scopoliae rhizoma, Scopolie.

Scopolia je biljka. Korijen i korijen nalik na kljun (gomoljasto) koriste se kao lijek; Unatoč ozbiljnim sigurnosnim pitanjima, scopolia se koristi za grčeve probavnog trakta, žučnih vodova i mokraćnog sustava, a za jetre i žučnog mjehura prigovora. Scopolia se također koristi za povećanje proizvodnje urina, uzrokuju opuštanje i san, šire zjenice oka i ublažavanje bolova.

Scopolia sadrži nekoliko kemikalije koje su slične recept lijekova, uključujući hiosciamin, atropin, skopolamin i. Ove kemikalije se opustiti mišiće sluznice probavnog i mokraćnog traktate.

Dovoljno dokaza fo; Zadržavanje tekućine; Anksioznost; Problem za spavanje; Bol; problemi s jetrom; Žučni mjehur problema; Grčevi probavnog sustava; Ostali uvjeti. Više dokaza je potrebno da biste ocijenili učinkovitost scopolia za ove namjene.

Scopolia je vjerojatno nesigurno kada se uzimaju na usta za self-lijekove. Postoji samo mala razlika između koristan doze i otrovnom dozom, a proizvodi se razlikuju u koncentracijama kemikalija. Rani simptomi trovanja uključuju crvenilo kože i suha usta. Ostali simptomi uključuju visoku tjelesnu temperaturu, smetnje vida, poteškoće mokrenja i opstipacija. Uzimanje velike količine scopolia može uzrokovati nemir, kompulzivnog govor i halucinacije, a potom disanje probleme i smrt; Posebne mjere opreza i upozorenja: Vrlo je vjerojatno nesiguran za bilo tko koristiti scopolia, ali ljudi s slijedećim uvjetima posebno su vjerojatno da će doživjeti neželjene nuspojave; Trudnoća i dojenje -feeding: Scopolia je vjerojatno sigurna. Nemojte ga koristiti ako ste trudni ili grudi -feeding; Srčani problemi kao što su kongestivno zatajenje srca (CHF) ili brzo, nepravilan rad srca: Scopolia moglo bi srce problema gore. Nemojte ga koristiti ako imate jedan od ovih uvjeta; Down sindrom: Osobe s Downovim sindromom bi mogao biti posebno osjetljivi na štetne učinke scopolia. Nemojte ga dati njima; Hijatalna hernija ili žgaravica (refluks bolest): Scopolia može učiniti ezofagealni refluks bolest pogoršati. Nemojte ga koristiti ako imate ovo stanje; Fever: Scopolia može podići tjelesnu temperaturu. Nemojte ga koristiti ako imate temperaturu; uvjeti probavnog trakta, uključujući zatvor, čireva na želucu, želuca ili crijevnih infekcija, ulcerozni kolitis, proširene debelog crijeva (toksična megacolon) ili začepljenja probavnog trakta: Scopolia može praviti probleme probavnog trakta i gore. Nemojte ga koristiti ako imate jedan od ovih uvjeta; Uskog kuta glaukoma: Scopolia može učiniti uskog kuta glaukom gore. Nemojte ga koristiti ako imate ovo stanje; Problem mokrenja (retencija urina): Scopolia moglo bi zadržavanje mokraće gore. Nemojte ga koristiti ako imate ovo stanje.

Scopolia sadrži kemikalije koje uzrokuju sušenje učinak. To također utječe na mozak i srce. Sušenje lijekove nazvane antikolinergika lijekovi također mogu izazvati ove učinke. Uzimajući scopolia i sušenje lijekove zajedno može izazvati nuspojave, uključujući suha koža, vrtoglavica, nizak krvni tlak, brzo kucanje srca i drugih ozbiljnih nuspojava; Neki od tih sušenje lijekova su atropin, skopolamin, i neke lijekove koji se koriste za alergije (antihistaminici), a za depresiju (antidepresive).

Scopolia sadrži kemikalije koje mogu utjecati na tijelo. Neke od tih kemikalija ima učinke slične nekih lijekova koji se koriste za depresiju. Uzimanje scopolia može povećati nuspojave nekih lijekova koji se koriste za depresiju; Neki od tih lijekova koji se koriste za depresiju su amitriptilin (Elavil), imipramin (Tofranil), i drugi.

Scopolia može utjecati na srce. Kinidin također može utjecati na srce. Uzimajući kvinidin uz scopolia bi moglo dovesti do ozbiljnih problema sa srcem.

Prikladna doza scopolia ovisi o više čimbenika kao što su korisnikova dob, zdravlje, i nekoliko drugih uvjeta. U ovom trenutku ne postoji dovoljno znanstvenih informacija kako bi se utvrdilo odgovarajući raspon doza za scopolia. Imajte na umu da prirodni proizvodi nisu uvijek nužno siguran i doze može biti važno. Budite sigurni da slijedite odgovarajuće upute na etiketama proizvoda i obratite se ljekarniku ili liječniku ili druge liječnikom prije korištenja.

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Pearn J. zapušen up: klinički trovanje hyoscine s alkaloida od native corkwood, Duboisia. Med.J.Aust. 10-17-198; 2 (8): 422-423.

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Wilkinson A, Frampton C, Glover P, and et al. Preoperative transdermal hyoscine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth.Intensive Care 198; 17(3):285-289.

Wilkinson J. Side effects of transdermal scopolamine. J Emerg.Med 198; 5(5):389-392.

Wirsching B, Beninger R, and Jhamandas K. Differential effects of scopolamine on working and reference memory of rats in the radial maze. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 198; 20(5):659-662.

Wood C, Manno J, Wood M, and et al. Mechanisms of antimotion sickness drugs. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 198; 58(9 Pt 2):A262-A265.

Wood C, Stewart J, Wood M, and et al. Therapeutic effects of antimotion sickness medications on the secondary symptoms of motion sickness. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 199; 61(2):157-161.

Wood C. Antimotion sickness and antiemetic drugs. Drugs 197; 17(6):471-479.

Wyant GM and Dobkin AB. Antisialogogue drugs in man. Comparison of atropine, scopolamine (l-hyoscine) and l-hyoscyamine (bellafoline). Anaesthesia 195; 12(2):203-214.

Yang MJ and Chen CC. Herbally induced anticholinergic intoxication: a report of three cases. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 198; 3:133-136.

Yang, G., Xu, K., and Luo, Q. [Clinical study of scopolamine detoxification for the treatment of heroin addicts]. Zhonghua Yi Xue.Za Zhi 199; 76(2):141-144.

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Ebert U, Oertel R, Kirch W. Influence of grapefruit juice on scopolamine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy male and female subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 200; 38:523-31.

Freeland-Graves JH, Lin PH. Plasma uptake of manganese as affected by oral loads of manganese, calcium, milk, phosphorus, copper, and zinc. J Am Coll Nutr 199; 10:38-43.

Friese KH, Kruse S, Ludtke R, and et al. The homoeopathic treatment of otitis media in children–comparisons with conventional therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 199; 35(7):296-301.

Hsu CK, Leo P, Shastry D, et al. Anticholinergic poisoning associated with herbal tea. Arch Intern Med 199; 155:2245-8.

Jie KG, Bots ML, Vermeer C, et al. Vitamin K status and bone mass in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: a population-based study. Calcif Tissue Int 199; 59:352-6.

Larsen SB and Peitersen E. Scopoderm-TTS&re; (scopolamine) influence on caloric-induced nystagmus: an extract. Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 198; 30:365-369.

Lean ME, Noroozi M, Kelly I. Dietary flavonols protect diabetic human lymphocytes against oxidative damage to DNA. Diabetes 199; 48:176-81.

Stewart JJ, Wood MJ, Wood CD, Mims ME. Effects of ginger on motion sickness susceptibility and gastric function. Pharmacology 199; 42:111-20.

Ferris, F. D., Kerr, I. G., Sone, M., and Marcuzzi, M. Transdermal scopolamine use in the control of narcotic-induced nausea. J Pain Symptom.Manage 199; 6(6):389-393.

Firth, A. Y. and Walker, K. Visual side-effects from transdermal scopolamine (hyoscine). Dev.Med Child Neurol. 200; 48(2):137-138.

Flicker C, Ferris S, and Serby M. Hypersensitivity to scopolamine in the elderly. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199; 107(2-3):437-441.

Flicker C, Serby M, and Ferris S. Scopolamine effects on memory, language, visuospatial praxis and psychomotor speed. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199; 100(2):243-250.

Fraunfelder, F. T. Transdermal scopolamine precipitating narrow-angle glaucoma. N Engl J Med 10-21-198; 307(17):1079.

Fredrickson, A., Snyder, P. J., Cromer, J., Thomas, E., Lewis, M., and Maruff, P. The use of effect sizes to characterize the nature of cognitive change in psychopharmacological studies: an example with scopolamine. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 200; 23(5):425-436.

Frith, C. D., Richardson, J. T., Samuel, M., Crow, T. J., and McKenna, P. J. The effects of intravenous diazepam and hyoscine upon human memory. Q J Exp Psychol A 198; 36(1):133-144.

Frumin, M. J., Herekar, V. R., and Jarvik, M. E. Amnesic actions of diazepam and scopolamine in man. Anesthesiology 197; 45(4):406-412.

Fujii, Y. Clinical strategies for preventing postoperative nausea and vomitting after middle ear surgery in adult patients. Curr.Drug Saf 200; 3(3):230-239.

Furey, M. L. and Drevets, W. C. Antidepressant efficacy of the antimuscarinic drug scopolamine: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 200; 63(10):1121-1129.

Furey, M. L., Pietrini, P., Haxby, J. V., and Drevets, W. C. Selective effects of cholinergic modulation on task performance during selective attention. Neuropsychopharmacology 200; 33(4):913-923.

Galeone M, Cacioli, D, Megevand J, and et al. Selection of the first-line treatment of irritable bowel syndrome – a prospective, randomised evaluation of fenoverine and hyoscine butyl bromide. European Journal of Clinical Research 199; 3:157-170.

Garner HH and Martinez S. Toxic psychosis due to a hyoscine compound. Illinois Medical Journal 195; 114:122-123.

Gibbons PA, Nicolson SC, Betts EK, and et al. Scopolamine does not prevent post-operative emesis after pediatric eye surgery. Anesthesiology 198; 61(3A):A435.

Gillin J, Sutton, L., Ruiz C, and et al. The effects of scopolamine on sleep and mood in depressed patients with a history of alcoholism and a normal comparison group. Biol.Psychiatry 7-15-199; 30(2):157-169.

Giovannini, M. G. The role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in memory encoding. Rev.Neurosci. 200; 17(6):619-634.

Gleiter, C. H., Antonin, K. H., and Bieck, P. R. Transdermally applied scopolamine does not impair psychomotor performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 198; 83(4):397-398.

Gleiter, C. H., Antonin, K. H., Brodrick, T., Bieck, P. R., and Breucha, G. Transdermal scopolamine and basal acid secretion. N Engl J Med 11-22-198; 311(21):1378.

Golding J, Gosden E, and Gerrell J. Scopolamine blood levels following buccal versus ingested tablets. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 199; 62(6):521-526.

Golding, J. F. and Stott, J. R. Comparison of the effects of a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist and hyoscine (scopolamine) on motion sickness, skin conductance and heart rate. Br.J Clin.Pharmacol. 199; 43(6):633-637.

Goldstein, B. J. Scopolamine-induced acute brain syndrome. J Fla.Med.Assoc. 196; 53(5):413-414.

Good W and Crain L. Esotropia in a child treated with a scopolamine patch for drooling. Pediatrics 199; 97(1):126-127.

Gordon C, Ben Aryeh H, Attias J, and et al. Effect of transdermal scopolamine on salivation. J.Clin.Pharmacol. 198; 25(6):407-412.

Gordon C, Binah O, Attias J, and et al. Transdermal scopolamine: human performance and side effects. Aviat.Space Environ.Med. 198; 57(3):236-240.

Gordon C, Shupak A, Doweck I, and et al. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by transdermal hyoscine. BMJ 5-6-198; 298(6682):1220-1221.

Goulston K. Diagnosis and treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome. Drugs 197; 6(3):237-243.

Gowans, J., Matheson, A., Darlington, C. L., and Smith, P. F. The effects of scopolamine and cyclizine on visual-vestibular interaction in humans. J Vestib.Res 200; 10(2):87-92.

Grainger, S. L. and Smith, S. E. Dose-response relationships of intravenous hyoscine butylbromide and atropine sulphate on heart rate in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 198; 16(6):623-626.

Grasby P, Frith C, Paulesu E, and et al. The effect of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine on regional cerebral blood flow during the performance of a memory task. Exp Brain Res 199; 104(2):337-348.

Gravenstein, J. S. and Thornby, J. I. Scopolamine on heart rates in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 196; 10(3):395-400.

Gravenstein, J. S., ANDERSEN, T. W., and DEPADUA, C. B. EFFECTS OF ATROPINE AND SCOPOLAMINE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN MAN. Anesthesiology 196; 25:123-130.

Graybiel A, Cramer D, and Wood C. Antimotion-sickness efficacy of scopolamine 12 and 72 hours after transdermal administration. Aviat.Space Environ.Med. 198; 53(8):770-772.

Graybiel, A., Cramer, D. B., and Wood, C. D. Experimental motion sickness: efficacy of transdermal scopolamine plus ephedrine. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 198; 52(6):337-339.

Graybiel, A., Knepton, J., and Shaw, J. Prevention of experimental motion sickness by scopolamine absorbed through the skin. Aviat.Space Environ Med 197; 47(10):1096-1100.

Greenblatt D and Shader R. Drug therapy. Anticholinergics. N.Engl.J Med 6-7-197; 288(23):1215-1219.

Greenstein A, Chen J, and Matzkin H. Transdermal scopolamine in prevention of post open prostatectomy bladder contractions. Urology 199; 39(3):215-218.

Grynkiewicz, G. and Gadzikowska, M. Tropane alkaloids as medicinally useful natural products and their synthetic derivatives as new drugs. Pharmacol.Rep. 200; 60(4):439-463.

Guldbrand P and Mellstrom A. Rectal versus intramuscular morphine-scopolamine as premedication in children. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand 199; 39(2):224-227.

Habib, A., Sharpe, P., Anderson, S., Francis, S., Davidson, A. C., and Smith, G. Buscopan for the treatment of pain after laparoscopic sterilisation. Anaesthesia 200; 56(2):174-176.

Hamill, M. B., Suelflow, J. A., and Smith, J. A. Transdermal scopolamine delivery system (TRANSDERM-V) and acute angle- closure glaucoma. Ann Ophthalmol 198; 15(11):1011-1012.

Hamilton R, Perrone J, Meggs WJ, and et al. Epidemic anticholinergic poisoning from scopolamine tainted heroin [abstract]. NACCT Abstracts 199; no volume listed:502.

Hamilton, R. J., Perrone, J., Hoffman, R., Henretig, F. M., Karkevandian, E. H., Marcus, S., Shih, R. D., Blok, B., and Nordenholz, K. A descriptive study of an epidemic of poisoning caused by heroin adulterated with scopolamine. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 200; 38(6):597-608.

Harnett, M. J., O’Rourke, N., Walsh, M., Carabuena, J. M., and Segal, S. Transdermal scopolamine for prevention of intrathecal morphine-induced nausea and vomiting after cesarean delivery. Anesth.Analg. 200; 105(3):764-769.

Harris, S. N., Sevarino, F. B., Sinatra, R. S., Preble, L., O’Connor, T. Z., and Silverman, D. G. Nausea prophylaxis using transdermal scopolamine in the setting of patient-controlled analgesia. Obstet Gynecol 199; 78(4):673-677.

Homick, J. L., Kohl, R. L., Reschke, M. F., Degioanni, J., and Cintron-Trevino, N. M. Transdermal scopolamine in the prevention of motion sickness: evaluation of the time course of efficacy. Aviat.Space Environ Med 198; 54(11):994-1000.

Honer W, Prohovnik I, Smith G, and et al. Scopolamine reduces frontal cortex perfusion. J.Cereb.Blood Flow Metab 198; 8(5):635-641.

Honkavaara P and Pyykko I. Effects of atropine and scopolamine on bradycardia and emetic symptoms in otoplasty. Laryngoscope 199; 109(1):108-112.

Honkavaara P, Saarnivaara L, and Klemola U. Effect of transdermal hyoscine on nausea and vomiting after surgical correction of prominent ears under general anaesthesia. Br.J Anaesth. 199; 74(6):647-650.

Honkavaara P, Saarnivaara L, and Klemola U. Prevention of nausea and vomiting with transdermal hyoscine in adults after middle ear surgery during general anaesthesia. Br.J Anaesth. 199; 73(6):763-766.

Honkavaara P. Effect of transdermal hyoscine on nausea and vomiting during and after middle ear surgery under local anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 199; 76(1):49-53.

Horimoto Y, Tomie H, Hanzawa K, and et al. Scopolamine patch reduces postoperative emesis in paediatric patients following strabismus surgery. Can.J Anaesth. 199; 38(4 Pt 1):441-444.

Howland, J., Rohsenow, D. J., Minsky, S., Snoberg, J., Tagerud, S., Hunt, S. K., Almeida, A., Greece, J., and Allensworth-Davies, D. The effects of transdermal scopolamine on simulated ship navigation and attention/reaction time. Int J Occup.Environ.Health 200; 14(4):250-256.

Huff FJ, Mickel SF, Corkin S, and et al. Cognitive functions affected by scopolamine in Alzheimer’s disease and normal aging. Drug Development Research 198; 12:271-278.

Hughes, S. S. and Zaloga, G. P. Scopolamine anisocaria. Ann Emerg.Med 198; 18(4):423-424.

Hull S Jr., Vanoli E., Adamson P, and et.al. Do increases in markers of vagal activity imply protection from sudden death? The case of scopolamine. Circulation 5-15-199; 91(10):2516-2519.

Ingles J, Beninger R, Jhamandas K, and et al. Scopolamine injected into the rat amygdala impairs working memory in the double Y-maze. Brain Res.Bull. 199; 32(4):339-344.

Ison J and Bowen G. Scopolamine reduces sensitivity to auditory gaps in the rat, suggesting a cholinergic contribution to temporal acuity. Hear.Res 200; 145(1-2):169-176.

Izquierdo, I. Mechanism of action of scopolamine as an amnestic. Trends Pharmacol Sci 198; 10(5):175-177.

Jaaskelainen I, Hirvonen J, Huttunen J, and et al. Scopolamine enhances middle-latency auditory evoked magnetic fields. Neurosci.Lett. 1-4-199; 259(1):41-44.

Jackson SH, Schmitt L, McGuire J, and et al. Transdermal scopolamine as a preanesthetic drug and postoperative antinauseant and antimetic [abstract]. Anesthesiology 198; 57(3):A330.

Jacobs, K. W. Asthmador: a legal hallucinogen. Int J Addict 197; 9(4):503-512.

Jespersen, T. W., Koch, J., Anker-Moller, E., Spangsberg, N. L., Johansen, U. T., and Grydehoj, P. [Transdermal scopolamine to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after uterine curettage and termination of pregnancy. A double-blind clinically controlled study with placebo]. Ugeskr Laeger 5-15-198; 151(20):1246-1248.

Jogani, V. V., Shah, P. J., Mishra, P., Mishra, A. K., and Misra, A. R. Intranasal mucoadhesive microemulsion of tacrine to improve brain targeting. Alzheimer Dis.Assoc.Disord. 200; 22(2):116-124.

Johnson, P., Hansen, D., Matarazzo, D., Petterson, L., Swisher, C., and Trappolini, A. Transderm Scop for prevention of motion sickness. N.Engl.J Med 8-16-198; 311(7):468-469.

Jones, D. M., Jones, M. E., Lewis, M. J., and Spriggs, T. L. Drugs and human memory: effects of low doses of nitrazepam and hyoscine on retention. Br J Clin Pharmacol 197; 7(5):479-483.

Jones, S., Strobl, R., Crosby, D., Burkard, J. F., Maye, J., and Pellegrini, J. E. The effect of transdermal scopolamine on the incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a group of high-risk patients given prophylactic intravenous ondansetron. AANA.J 200; 74(2):127-132.

Kamboj, S. K. and Curran, H. V. Scopolamine induces impairments in the recognition of human facial expressions of anger and disgust. Psychopharmacology (Beri) 200; 185(4):529-535.

Kanto J, Kentala E, and Kaila T. Pharmacokinetics of scopolamine during caesarean section: relationship between serum concentration and effect. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand. 198; 33(6):482-486.

Abernethy, A. P., Nixon, A., Fine, P. G., Peppin, J. F., Crossno, R. J., and Bull, J. Palliative care pharmacotherapy literature summaries and analyses. J Pain Palliat.Care Pharmacother. 200; 21(3):91-97.

Adigun, A. O. and Ajayi, A. A. Muscarinic blockade with oral hyoscine palliates angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor induced cough. Afr.J Med Med Sci 199; 27(1-2):139.

Ahveninen, J., Tiitinen, H., Hirvonen, J., Pekkonen, E., Huttunen, J., Kaakkola, S., and Jaaskelainen, I. P. Scopolamine augments transient auditory 40-hz magnetic response in humans. Neurosci.Lett. 12-24-199; 277(2):115-118.

Al-Waili, N. and Saloom, K. Y. The analgesic effect of intravenous tenoxicam in symptomatic treatment of biliary colic: a comparison with hyoscine N-butylbromide. Eur J Med Res 10-14-199; 3(10):475-479.

Alberch J, Carman-Krzan M, Fabrazzo M, and et al. Chronic treatment with scopolamine and physostigmine changes nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor density and NGF content in rat brain. Brain Res 3-1-199; 542(2):233-240.

Alhalel, A., Ziv, I., Versano, D., Ruach, M., Alkalay, M., Almog, S., Izraeli, S., and Glovinsky, J. Ocular effects of hyoscine in double dose transdermal administration and its reversal by low dose pyridostigmine. Aviat.Space Environ Med 199; 66(11):1037-1040.

Ali-Melkkilä T, Kanto J, and Iisalo E. Pharmacokinetics and related pharmacodynamics of anticholinergic drugs. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 199; 37:633-642.

Alihanka J, Lahdenpera A, and Kaila T. The effects of transdermal scopolamine on autonomic nervous activity during sleep. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 199; 46(6):507-510.

Anderson, D. R., Harris, L. W., Bowersox, S. L., Lennox, W. J., and Anders, J. C. Efficacy of injectable anticholinergic drugs against soman-induced convulsive/subconvulsive activity. Drug Chem Toxicol 199; 17(2):139-148.

Anonymous. Transdermal scopolamine for motion sickness. Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics 10-16-198; 23(21):89-90.

Antrobus, J. H., Abbott, P., Carr, C. M., and Chatrath, R. R. Midazolam-droperidol premedication for cardiac surgery. A comparison with papaveretum and hyoscine. Anaesthesia 199; 46(5):407-409.

Aronson, J. K. and Sear, J. W. Transdermal hyoscine (scopolamine) and postoperative vomiting. Anaesthesia 198; 41(1):1-3.

Attias J, Gordon C, Ribak J, and et al. Efficacy of transdermal scopolamine against seasickness: a 3-day study at sea. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 198; 58(1):60-62.

Babin R, Balkany T, and Fee W. Transdermal scopolamine in the treatment of acute vertigo. Ann.Otol.Rhinol.Laryngol. 198; 93(1 Pt 1):25-27.

Bahro M, Schreurs B, Sunderland T, and et al. The effects of scopolamine, lorazepam, and glycopyrrolate on classical conditioning of the human eyeblink response. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199; 122(4):395-400.

Bailey, P. L., Streisand, J. B., Pace, N. L., Bubbers, S. J., East, K. A., Mulder, S., and Stanley, T. H. Transdermal scopolamine reduces nausea and vomiting after outpatient laparoscopy. Anesthesiology 199; 72(6):977-980.

Bajalan A, Wright C, and van, der Vliet V. Changes in the human visual evoked potential caused by the anticholinergic agent hyoscine hydrobromide: comparison with results in Alzheimer’s disease. J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 198; 49(2):175-182.

Beach GO, Fitzgerald RP, Holmes R, and et al. Hazards to health: scopolamine poisoning*. New England Journal of Medicine 196; 270(25):1354-1355.

Beatty W, Butters N, and Janowsky D. Patterns of memory failure after scopolamine treatment: implications for cholinergic hypotheses of dementia. Behav.Neural Biol. 198; 45(2):196-211.

Beatty, W. W. and Bierley, R. A. Scopolamine degrades spatial working memory but spares spatial reference memory: dissimilarity of anticholinergic effect and restriction of distal visual cues. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 198; 23(1):1-6.

Becker, G., Goossens, H., Seemann, K., Souchon, F., and Weitz, T. [Prevention of motion sickness with a transdermal therapeutic system containing scopolamine. A randomized, comparative double-blind study in the German Federal Navy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 12-7-198; 109(49):1881-1885.

Bennett, M. I. Death rattle: an audit of hyoscine (scopolamine) use and review of management. J Pain Symptom.Manage. 199; 12(4):229-233.

Benson, A. J. and Brand, J. J. Some effects of l-hyoscine hydrobromide on post-rotatory sensation and nystagmus in man. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci 196; 53(3):296-311.

Bernstein S and Leff R. Toxic psychosis from sleeping medicines containing scopolamine. N.Engl.J Med 9-21-196; 277(12):638-639.

Bettermann, H., Cysarz, D., Portsteffen, A., and Kummell, H. C. Bimodal dose-dependent effect on autonomic, cardiac control after oral administration of Atropa belladonna. Auton.Neurosci. 7-20-200; 90(1-2):132-137.

Bienia, R. A., Smith, M., and Pellegrino, T. Scopolamine skin-disks and anisocoria. Ann Intern Med 198; 99(4):572-573.

Biggan S, Ingles J, and Beninger R. Scopolamine differentially affects memory of 8- and 16-month-old rats in the double Y-maze. Neurobiol.Aging 199; 17(1):25-30.

Binah O, Gordon C, Attias J, and et al. Transdermal scopolamine (Scopoderm

Bishop KI, Curran HV, and Lader M. Do scopolamine and lorazepam have dissociable effects on human memory systems? A dose–response study with normal volunteers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 199; 4(3):292-299.

Bishop, K. I. and Curran, H. V. An investigation of the effects of benzodiazepine receptor ligands and of scopolamine on conceptual priming. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199; 140(3):345-353.

Bliem, B., Tegenthoff, M., and Dinse, H. R. Cholinergic gating of improvement of tactile acuity induced by peripheral tactile stimulation. Neurosci.Lett. 3-21-200; 434(1):129-132.

Blin J and Chase T. Effects of scopolamine on human brain glucose consumption. Neuropsychopharmacology 199; 12(3):273-276.

Blin J, Piercey M, Giuffra M, and et al. Metabolic effects of scopolamine and physostigmine in human brain measured by positron emission tomography. J Neurol Sci. 199; 123(1-2):44-51.

Bosek V and Downs JB. Nausea and vomiting after Alfentanil anesthesia: effect of transdermal scopolamine. Anesthesiol Rev 199; 19(1):19-22.

Bosman IJ. Chapter 8. Effects of transdermal scopolamine on pulmonary function and symptoms in patients with (partially) reversible airways obstruction. Transdermal Delivery of Anticholinergic Bronchodilators. Methodological and Clinical Aspects. Groningen: Rijksuniversiteit Groninge; 1996.

Bosman IJ. Chapter 9. Effects of transdermal scopolamine on bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Transdermal Delivery of Anticholinergic Bronchodilators. Methodological and Clinical Aspects. Groningen: Rijksuniversiteit Groninge; 1996.

Bova, J. G., Jurdi, R. A., and Bennett, W. F. Antispasmodic drugs to reduce discomfort and colonic spasm during barium enemas: comparison of oral hyoscyamine, i.v. glucagon, and no drug. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199; 161(5):965-968.

Braccini G., Marraccini P, Marrucci A, and et al. Usefulness and safety of pirenzepine in double-contrast study of upper gastrointestinal tract: comparison with scopolamine methylbromide. Abdom.Imaging 199; 19(3):201-206.

Braccini, G., Marraccini, P., Boraschi, P., Marrucci, A., Bertellotti, L., and Testa, R. [Usefulness of pirenzepine in the study of the upper digestive tract and the large intestine with double contrast media: comparison with scopolamine methylbromide]. Radiol.Med (Torino) 199; 92(6):733-737.

Bradford, T. H., Robertson, K., Norman, P. F., and Meeks, G. R. Reduction of pain and nausea after laparoscopic sterilization with bupivacaine, metoclopramide, scopolamine, ketorolac, and gastric suctioning. Obstet Gynecol 199; 85(5 Pt 1):687-691.

Brand, J. J. and Whittingham, P. Intramuscular hyoscine in control of motion sickness. Lancet 8-1-197; 2(7666):232-234.

Brand, J. J., Colquhoun, W. P., and Perry, W. L. Side-effects of 1-hyoscine and cyclizine studied by objective tests. Aerosp.Med 196; 39(9):999-1002.

Brand, J. J., Colquhoun, W. P., Gould, A. H., and Perry, W. L. (–)-Hyoscine and cyclizine as motion sickness remedies. Br.J Pharmacol. 196; 30(3):463-469.

Brandeis D, Naylor H, Halliday R, and et al. Scopolamine effects on visual information processing, attention, and event-related potential map latencies. Psychophysiology 199; 29(3):315-336.

Brazell C, Preston GC, Ward C, and et al. The scopolamine model of dementia: chronic transdermal administration. J Psychopharmacol 198; 3(2):76-82.

Brodtkorb E, Wyzocka-Bakowska M, Lillevold P, and. Transdermal scopolamine in drooling. J Ment.Defic.Res 198; 32 (Pt 3):233-237.

Broks P, Preston G, Traub M, and et al. Modelling dementia: effects of scopolamine on memory and attention. Neuropsychologia 198; 26(5):685-700.

Brooks, A. M., West, R. H., and Gillies, W. E. The risks of precipitating acute angle-closure glaucoma with the clinical use of mydriatic agents. Med J Aust 7-7-198; 145(1):34-36.

Brown K and Warburton DM. Attenuation of stimulus sensitivity by scopolamine. Psychon Sci 197; 22(5):297-298.

Buchhalter, A. R., Fant, R. V., and Henningfield, J. E. Novel pharmacological approaches for treating tobacco dependence and withdrawal: current status. Drugs 200; 68(8):1067-1088.

Caine E, Weingartner H, Ludlow C, and et al. Qualitative analysis of scopolamine-induced amnesia. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 198; 74(1):74-80.

Cairncross J. Scopolamine psychosis revisited. Ann.Neurol. 198; 13(5):582.

Callaway, E., Halliday, R., Naylor, H., and Schechter, G. Effects of oral scopolamine on human stimulus evaluation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 198; 85(2):133-138.

Capacio B and Shih T. Anticonvulsant actions of anticholinergic drugs in soman poisoning. Epilepsia 199; 32(5):604-615.

Carlston J. Unilateral dilated pupil from scopolamine disk. JAMA 7-2-198; 248(1):31.

Casadei B, Conway J, Forfar C, and et al. Effect of low doses of scopolamine on RR interval variability, baroreflex sensitivity, and exercise performance in patients with chronic heart failure. Heart 199; 75(3):274-280.

Casadei B, Conway J, Meyer TE, and et al. Effect of vagal stimulation by transdermal scopolamine on exercise performance and R-R interval variability (RRV) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) [abstract]. Circulation 199; 86 (Suppl 1):I-395.

Casadei B, Pipilis A, Conway J, and et al. Effects of vagal stimulation by transdermal scopolamine in patients post myocardial infarction [abstract]. Circulation 199; 84 (Suppl 2):II-555.

Casadei B, Pipilis A, Sessa F, and et al. Low doses of scopolamine increase cardiac vagal tone in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Circulation 199; 88(2):353-357.

Casadei B, Pipilis A, Sessa F, and et al. Transdermal scopolamine: a potential tool in preventing sudden death in myocardial infarction [abstract]. Eur Heart J 199; 12 (Suppl):366.

Chan, T. Y. An assessment of the delayed effects associated with valerian overdose. Int.J Clin Pharmacol.Ther. 199; 36(10):569.

Chan, T. Y., Tang, C. H., and Critchley, J. A. Poisoning due to an over-the-counter hypnotic, Sleep-Qik (hyoscine, cyproheptadine, valerian). Postgrad.Med.J 199; 71(834):227-228.

Chandrasekaran SK. Controlled release of scopolamine for prophylaxis of motion sickness. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 198; 9(4):627-646.

Chiaramonte, J. S. Cycloplegia from transdermal scopolamine. N Engl J Med 1-21-198; 306(3):174.

Christensen, C. M., Navazesh, M., and Brightman, V. J. Effects of pharmacologic reductions in salivary flow on taste thresholds in man. Arch Oral Biol 198; 29(1):17-23.

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Ciccaglione, A. F., Grossi, L., Cappello, G., Malatesta, M. G., Ferri, A., Toracchio, S., and Marzio, L. Effect of hyoscine N-butylbromide on gastroesophageal reflux in normal subjects and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol 200; 96(8):2306-2311.

Clarke RS, Dundee JW, and Moore J. Studies of drugs given before anaesthesia. VI. Atropine and hyoscine. Br J Anaesth 196; 36:648-654.

Clarke, R. S., Dundee, J. W., and Love, W. J. Studies of drugs given before anaesthesia. 8. Morphine 10 mg alone and with atropine or hyoscine. Br J Anaesth 196; 37(10):772-778.

Clarke, R. S., Dundee, J. W., and MOORE, J. STUDIES OF DRUGS GIVEN BEFORE ANAESTHESIA. IV. ATROPINE AND HYOSCINE. Br.J Anaesth. 196; 36:648-654.

Clissold S and Heel R. Transdermal hyoscine (scopolamine). A preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 198; 29(3):189-207.

Cohen R, Gross M, Semple W, and et al. The metabolic brain pattern of young subjects given scopolamine. Exp Brain Res 199; 100(1):133-143.

Colquhoun WP. Effects of hyoscine and meclozine on vigilance and short-term memory. Br J Industr Med 196; 19:287-296.

Conner, J. T., Bellville, J. W., Wender, R., Schehl, D., Dorey, F., and Katz, R. L. Morphine, scopolamine, and atropine as intravenous surgical premedicants. Anesth.Analg. 197; 56(5):606-614.

Cornella J, Bent A, Ostergard D, and et al. Prospective study utilizing transdermal scopolamine in detrusor instability. Urology 199; 35(1):96-97.

Cronin, C. M., Sallan, S. E., and Wolfe, L. Transdermal scopolamine in motion sickness. Pharmacotherapy 198; 2(1):29-31.

Crowell, E. B., Jr. and Ketchum, J. S. The treatment of scopolamine-induced delirium with physostigmine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 196; 8(3):409-414.

Curran H, Pooviboonsuk P, Dalton J, and et al. Differentiating the effects of centrally acting drugs on arousal and memory: an event-related potential study of scopolamine, lorazepam and diphenhydramine. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199; 135(1):27-36.

Curran H, Schifano F, and Lader M. Models of memory dysfunction? A comparison of the effects of scopolamine and lorazepam on memory, psychomotor performance and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199; 103(1):83-90.

Dahl E, Offer-Ohlsen D, Lillevold P, and et al. Transdermal scopolamine, oral meclizine, and placebo in motion sickness. Clin Pharmacol Ther 198; 36(1):116-120.

Danion J, Zimmermann M, Willard-Schroeder D, and et al. Effects of scopolamine, trimipramine and diazepam on explicit memory and repetition priming in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199; 102(3):422-424.

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Degioanni JJ, Calkins DS, and Reschke MF. Evaluation of the efficacy of buccal scopolamine tablets (1.0 mg) in the treatment of acute motion sickness [abstract]. Aviat Space Environ Med 199; 61:484.

Demeter, S. L. and Cordasco, E. M. Transdermal scopolamine in the treatment of asthma: a preliminary report. J Asthma 198; 23(4):203-206.

Dettman C. Suppression of salivation in wind-instrument players with scopolamine. N.Engl.J.Med. 5-24-198; 310(21):1396.

Dibner-Dunlap M, Eckberg D, Magid N, and et al. The long-term increase of baseline and reflexly augmented levels of human vagal-cardiac nervous activity induced by scopolamine. Circulation 198; 71(4):797-804.

Dibner-Dunlap ME, Eckberg DL, and Magid NM. Transcutaneous scopolamine: a potential defense against sudden cardiac death [abstract]. Clin Res 198; 32(2):473A.

Done AK. The toxic emergency. To sleep, perchance to die. Emergency Medicine 197; 7:277-279, 283, 287-289.

Dotevall, G., Walan, A., and Weinfeld, A. Effect of 1-hyoscyamine on gastric secretion of acid and intrinsic factor in man. Gut 196; 8(3):276-280.

Douma WR, Bosman IJ, Rutgers SR, and et al. Effects of transdermal scopolamine on pulmonary function, symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Eur J Pharm Sci 199; 5(6):327-334.

Doyle, E., Byers, G., McNicol, L. R., and Morton, N. S. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting with transdermal hyoscine in children using patient-controlled analgesia. Br J Anaesth. 199; 72(1):72-76.

Dreyfuss P, Vogel D, and Walsh N. The use of transdermal scopolamine to control drooling. A case report. Am J Phys.Med Rehabil. 199; 70(4):220-222.

Duka T, Redemann B, and Voet B. Scopolamine and lorazepam exert different patterns of effects in a test battery assessing stages of information processing. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199; 119(3):315-324.

Dukoff R, Friz J, Lasser, and et al. A comparison of effects of tacrine with scopolamine versus tacrine with placebo in patients with Alzheimer’s disease [abstract]. 11th Annual Meeting of the Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 1998

Dumas, J., Hancur-Bucci, C., Naylor, M., Sites, C., and Newhouse, P. Estradiol interacts with the cholinergic system to affect verbal memory in postmenopausal women: evidence for the critical period hypothesis. Horm.Behav. 200; 53(1):159-169.

Dundee, J. W. and Pandit, S. K. Anterograde amnesic effects of pethidine, hyoscine and diazepam in adults. Br.J Pharmacol 197; 44(1):140-144.

Dunne M and Hartley L. The effects of scopolamine upon verbal memory: evidence for an attentional hypothesis. Acta Psychol.(Amst) 198; 58(3):205-217.

Dunne MP. Scopolamine and sustained retrieval from semantic memory. J Psychopharmacol 199; 4(1):13-18.

Dunne, M. P. and Hartley, L. R. Scopolamine and the control of attention in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 198; 89(1):94-97.

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Ebert, U., Siepmann, M., Oertel, R., Wesnes, K. A., and Kirch, W. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of scopolamine after subcutaneous administration. J Clin Pharmacol 199; 38(8):720-726.

Einarsson, J. I., Audbergsson, B. O., and Thorsteinsson, A. Scopolamine for prevention of postoperative nausea in gynecologic laparoscopy, a randomized trial. J Minim.Invasive.Gynecol. 200; 15(1):26-31.

Elias M and Abouleish E. Scopolamine patch can be confusing to the patient and anesthesiologist: a case report. Anesthesiology 199; 86(3):743-744.

Estrada, A., Leduc, P. A., Curry, I. P., Phelps, S. E., and Fuller, D. R. Airsickness prevention in helicopter passengers. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 200; 78(4):408-413.

Evens, R. P. and Leopold, J. C. Scopolamine toxicity in a newborn. Pediatrics 198; 66(2):329-330.

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